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Introduction :: Uganda
The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences prevented the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. During the 1990s, the government promulgated non-party presidential and legislative elections.
Geography :: Uganda
Eastern Africa, west of Kenya
Geographic coordinates:
1 00 N, 32 00 E
Map references:
total: 241,038 sq km
country comparison to the world: 80
land: 197,100 sq km
water: 43,938 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
total: 2,698 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 765 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Current Weather
tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
mostly plateau with rim of mountains
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m
Natural resources:
copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold
Land use:
arable land: 21.57%
permanent crops: 8.92%
other: 69.51% (2005)
Irrigated land:
90 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
66 cu km (1970)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 0.3 cu km/yr (43%/17%/40%)
per capita: 10 cu m/yr (2002)
Natural hazards:
Environment - current issues:
draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography - note:
landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers
People :: Uganda
country comparison to the world: 37
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2010 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 50% (male 8,152,830/female 8,034,366)
15-64 years: 47.9% (male 7,789,209/female 7,703,143)
65 years and over: 2.1% (male 286,693/female 403,317) (2010 est.)
Median age:
total: 15 years
male: 14.9 years
female: 15.1 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.563% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
Birth rate:
47.55 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
Death rate:
11.9 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Net migration rate:
-0.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
urban population: 13% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 4.4% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 63.7 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 28
male: 67.31 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 59.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 52.98 years
country comparison to the world: 205
male: 51.92 years
female: 54.07 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:
6.73 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
5.4% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
940,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
77,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, plague, and African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2009)
noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan
Ethnic groups:
Baganda 16.9%, Banyakole 9.5%, Basoga 8.4%, Bakiga 6.9%, Iteso 6.4%, Langi 6.1%, Acholi 4.7%, Bagisu 4.6%, Lugbara 4.2%, Bunyoro 2.7%, other 29.6% (2002 census)
Roman Catholic 41.9%, Protestant 42% (Anglican 35.9%, Pentecostal 4.6%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.5%), Muslim 12.1%, other 3.1%, none 0.9% (2002 census)
English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 66.8%
male: 76.8%
female: 57.7% (2002 census)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 10 years
male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2008)
Education expenditures:
3.3% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 139
Government :: Uganda
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda
Government type:
name: Kampala
geographic coordinates: 0 19 N, 32 25 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
80 districts; Abim, Adjumani, Amolatar, Amuria, Amuru, Apac, Arua, Budaka, Bududa, Bugiri, Bukedea, Bukwa, Bulisa, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Butaleja, Dokolo, Gulu, Hoima, Ibanda, Iganga, Isingiro, Jinja, Kaabong, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kalangala, Kaliro, Kampala, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kibale, Kiboga, Kiruhara, Kisoro, Kitgum, Koboko, Kotido, Kumi, Kyenjojo, Lira, Luwero, Lyantonde, Manafwa, Maracha, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Mityana, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Nakaseke, Nakasongola, Namutumba, Nebbi, Ntungamo, Oyam, Pader, Pallisa, Rakai, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe
9 October 1962 (from the UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
8 October 1995; amended in 2005
note: the amendments in 2005 removed presidential term limits and legalized a multiparty political system
Legal system:
based on English common law and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Prime Minister Apolo NSIBAMBI (since 5 April 1999); note - the prime minister assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected legislators
elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 23 February 2006 (next to be held on 18 February 2011)
election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 59.3%, Kizza BESIGYE 37.4%, other 3.3%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (332 seats; 215 members elected by popular vote, 104 nominated by legally established special interest groups [women 79, army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5], 13 ex-officio members; members to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 23 February 2006 (next to be held on 18 February 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NRM 205, FDC 37, UPC 9, DP 8, CP 1, JEEMA 1, independents 37, other 34
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the president and approved by the legislature); High Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Conservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]; Democratic Party or DP [Kizito SSEBAANA]; Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Kizza BESIGYE]; Inter-Party Co-operation or IPC (a coalition of opposition groups); Justice Forum or JEEMA [Muhammad Kibirige MAYANJA]; National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]; Peoples Progressive Party or PPP [Bidandi SSALI]; Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Miria OBOTE]
note: a national referendum in July 2005 opened the way for Uganda's transition to a multi-party political system
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Lord's Resistance Army or LRA [Joseph KONY]; Young Parliamentary Association [Henry BANYENZAKI]; Parliamentary Advocacy Forum or PAFO; National Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU [Florence NEKYON]; The Ugandan Coalition for Political Accountability to Women or COPAW
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Perezi Karukubiro KAMUNANWIRE
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jerry P. LANIER
embassy: 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala
mailing address: P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone: [256] (414) 259 791 through 93, 95
FAX: [256] (414) 258-794
Flag description:
six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side; black symbolizes the African people, yellow sunshine and vitality, red African brotherhood; the crane was the military badge of Ugandan soldiers under the UK
National anthem:
name: "Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty!"
lyrics/music: George Wilberforce KAKOMOA
note: adopted 1962
Economy :: Uganda
Economy - overview:
Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and recently discovered oil. Uganda has never conducted a national minerals survey. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. Since 1990 economic reforms ushered in an era of solid economic growth based on continued investment in infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, lower inflation, better domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. Uganda has received about $2 billion in multilateral and bilateral debt relief. In 2007 Uganda received $10 million for a Millennium Challenge Account Threshold Program. The global economic downturn has hurt Uganda's exports; however, Uganda's GDP growth is still relatively strong due to past reforms and sound management of the downturn. Oil revenues and taxes will become a larger source of government funding as oil comes on line in the next few years. Instability in southern Sudan is the biggest risk for the Ugandan economy in 2011 because Uganda's main export partner is Sudan and Uganda is a key destination for Sudanese refugees.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$41.7 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
$39.41 billion (2009 est.)
$36.76 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$17.12 billion (2010 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
5.8% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
7.2% (2009 est.)
8.7% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,200 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207
$1,200 (2009 est.)
$1,200 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 23.6%
industry: 24.5%
services: 51.9% (2010 est.)
Labor force:
15.51 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 82%
industry: 5%
services: 13% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Population below poverty line:
35% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 34.1% (2005)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
45.7 (2002)
country comparison to the world: 39
37.4 (1996)
Investment (gross fixed):
20.9% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
Public debt:
20.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
20.2% of GDP (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.4% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
14.2% (2009 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
9.65% (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 13
19.42% (31 December 2008)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
20.96% (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
20.45% (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$1.997 billion (31 December 2010 est)
$1.603 billion (31 December 2009 est)
Stock of broad money:
$3.905 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$3.322 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$1.882 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
$1.716 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA (31 December 2009)
$NA (31 December 2007)
$116.3 million (31 December 2006)
Agriculture - products:
coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry
sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production
Industrial production growth rate:
6% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
Electricity - production:
2.256 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
Electricity - consumption:
2.068 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
Electricity - exports:
30 million kWh (2007)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production:
NA bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil - consumption:
13,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
Oil - imports:
13,090 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
Current account balance:
-$784 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
-$451 million (2009 est.)
$2.941 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
$2.7 billion (2009 est.)
Exports - commodities:
coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold
Exports - partners:
Sudan 13.47%, Kenya 8.98%, UAE 7.52%, Rwanda 7.5%, Switzerland 7.42%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.85%, Netherlands 5.67%, Belgium 5.66%, Germany 5.18%, Italy 4.33% (2009)
$4.474 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
$3.844 billion (2009 est.)
Imports - commodities:
capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
Imports - partners:
Kenya 13.9%, India 12.79%, UAE 11.16%, China 8.91%, South Africa 5.08%, France 4.6%, Japan 4.37%, US 4.07% (2009)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$3.743 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
$2.995 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
note: excludes gold
Debt - external:
$2.888 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
$2.554 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Exchange rates:
Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar - 2,166 (2010), 2,038.9 (2009), 1,658.1 (2008), 1,685.8 (2007), 1,834.9 (2006)
Communications :: Uganda
Telephones - main lines in use:
233,500 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 124
Telephones - mobile cellular:
9.384 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 68
Telephone system:
general assessment: mobile cellular service is increasing rapidly, but the number of main lines is still deficient; work underway on a national backbone information and communications technology infrastructure; international phone networks and Internet connectivity provided through satellite and VSAT applications
domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed and mobile-cellular systems for short-range traffic; mobile-cellular teledensity about 30 per 100 persons in 2009
international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenya and Tanzania
Broadcast media:
public broadcaster, Uganda Broadcasting Corporation (UBC), operates radio and television networks; Uganda first began licensing privately-owned stations in the 1990s; by 2007 there were nearly 150 radio and 35 TV stations, mostly based in and around Kampala; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available in Kampala (2007)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
19,927 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 111
Internet users:
3.2 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 66
Transportation :: Uganda
46 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 95
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 41
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 8 (2010)
total: 1,244 km
country comparison to the world: 84
narrow gauge: 1,244 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
total: 70,746 km
country comparison to the world: 68
paved: 16,272 km
unpaved: 54,474 km (2003)
there are no long navigable stretches of river in Uganda; parts of the Albert Nile that flow out of Lake Albert in the northwestern part of the country are navigable; several lakes including Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga have substantial traffic; Lake Albert is navigable along a 200 km stretch from its northern tip to its southern shores (2009)
Ports and terminals:
Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell
Military :: Uganda
Military branches:
Uganda Peoples Defense Force (UPDF): Army (includes Marine Unit), Uganda Air Force (2010)
Military service age and obligation:
18-26 years of age for voluntary military duty; 18-30 years of age for professionals; no conscription; 9-year service obligation; the government has stated that recruitment below 18 years of age could occur with proper consent and that "no person under the apparent age of 13 years shall be enrolled in the armed forces"; Ugandan citizenship and secondary education required (2010)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 6,972,134
females age 16-49: 6,752,005 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 4,138,180
females age 16-49: 4,028,125 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 412,640
female: 408,521 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
2.2% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 67
Transnational Issues :: Uganda
Disputes - international:
Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Uganda hosts 209,860 Sudanese, 27,560 Congolese, and 19,710 Rwandan refugees, while Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 215,700 (Sudan); 28,880 (Democratic Republic of Congo); 24,900 (Rwanda)
IDPs: 1.27 million (350,000 IDPs returned in 2006 following ongoing peace talks between the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) and the Government of Uganda) (2007)

Credits: CIA World Factbook

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